The dynasty of the Ptolemies.–The founder.–Philip of Macedon.–Alexander.–The intrigue discovered.–Ptolemy banished.–Accession of Alexander.–Ptolemy’s elevation.–Death of Alexander.–Ptolemy becomes King of Egypt.–Character of Ptolemy’s reign.–The Alexandrian library.–Abdication of Ptolemy.–Ptolemy Philadelphus.–Death of Ptolemy.–Subsequent degeneracy of the Ptolemies.–Incestuous marriages of the Ptolemy family.–Ptolemy Physcon.–Origin of his name.–Circumstances of Physcon’s accession.–Cleopatra.–Physcon’s brutal perfidity.–He marries his wife’s daughter.–Atrocities of Physcon.–His flight.–Cleopatra assumes the government.–Her birth-day.–Barbarity of Physcon.–Grief of Cleopatra.–General character of the Ptolemy family.–Lathyrus. –Terrible quarrels with his mother.–Cruelties of Cleopatra. –Alexander kills her.–Cleopatra a type of the family.–Her two daughters.–Unnatural war.–Tryphena’s hatred of her sister.–Taking of Antioch.–Cleopatra flees to a temple.–Jealousy of Tryphena.–Her resentment increases.–Cruel and sacrilegious murder.–The moral condition of mankind not degenerating.
Internal administration of the Ptolemies.–Industry of the people.–Its happy effects.–Idleness the parent of vice.–An idle aristocracy generally vicious.–Degradation and vice.–Employment a cure for both.–Greatness of Alexandria.–Situation of its port.–Warehouses and granaries.–Business of the port.–Scenes within the city.–The natives protected in their industry.–Public edifices.–The light-house.–Fame of the light-house.–Its conspicuous position.–Mode of lighting the tower.–Modern method–The architect of the Pharos.–His ingenious stratagem.–Ruins of the Pharos.–The Alexandrian library.–Immense magnitude of the library.–The Serapion.–The Serapis of Egypt.–The Serapis of Greece.–Ptolemy’s dream.–Importance of the statue.–Ptolemy’s proposal to the King of Sinope.–His ultimate success.–Mode of obtaining books.–The Jewish Scriptures.–Seclusion of the Jews.–Interest felt in their Scriptures.–Jewish slaves in Egypt.–Ptolemy’s designs.–Ptolemy liberates the slaves.–Their ransom paid.–Ptolemy’s success.–The Septuagint.–Early copies of the Septuagint.–Present copies.–Various other plans of the Ptolemies.–Means of raising money.–Heavy taxes.–Poverty of the people.–Ancient and modern capitals.–Liberality of the Ptolemies.–Splendor and renown of Alexandria.–Her great rival.
Rome the rival of Alexandria.–Extent of their rule.–Extension of the Roman empire.–Cleopatra’s father.–Ptolemy’s ignoble birth.–Caesar and Pompey.–Ptolemy purchases the alliance of Rome.–Taxes to raise the money.–Revolt at Alexandria.–Ptolemy’s flight.–Berenice.–Her marriage with Seleucus.–Cleopatra’s early life.–Ptolemy an object of contempt.–Ptolemy’s interview with Cato.–Character of Cato.–Ptolemy’s reception.–Cato’s advice to him.–Ptolemy arrives at Rome.–His application to Pompey.–Action of the Roman senate.–Plans for restoring Ptolemy.–Measures of Berenice.–Her embassage to Rome.–Ptolemy’s treachery.–Its consequences.–Opposition to Ptolemy.–The prophecy.–Attempts to evade the oracle.–Gabinius undertakes the cause.–Mark Antony.–His history and character.–Antony in Greece.–He joins Gabinius.–Danger of crossing the deserts.–Armies destroyed.–Mark Antony’s character.–His personal appearance.–March across the desert.–Pelusium taken.–March across the Delta.–Success of the Romans.–Berenice a prisoner.–Fate of Archelaus.–Grief of Antony.–Unnatural joy of Ptolemy.
Cleopatra.–Excitement in Alexandria.–Ptolemy restored.–Acquiescence of the people.–Festivities.–Popularity of Antony.–Antony’s generosity.–Anecdote.–Antony and Cleopatra.–Antony returns to Rome.–Ptolemy’s murders.–Pompey and Caesar.–Close of Ptolemy’s reign.–Settlement of the succession.–Accession of Cleopatra.–She is married to her brother.–Pothinus, the eunuch.–His character and government.–Machinations of Pothinus.–Cleopatra is expelled. –Cleopatra’s army.–Approaching contest.–Caesar and Pompey. –Battle of Pharsalia.–Pompey at Pelusium.–Treachery of Pothinus.–Caesar’s pursuit of Pompey.–His danger.–Caesar at Alexandria.–Astonishment of the Egyptians.–Caesar presented with Pompey’s head.–Pompey’s seal.–Situation of Caesar.–His demands.–Conduct of Pothinus.–Quarrels–Policy of Pothinus. –Contentions.–Caesar sends to Syria for additional troops.
Cleopatra’s perplexity.–She resolves To go to Alexandria.–Cleopatra’s message to Caesar.–Caesar’s reply.–Apollodorus’s stratagem.–Cleopatra and Caesar–First impressions.–Caesar’s attachment.–Caesar’s wife.–His fondness for Cleopatra.–Cleopatra’s foes.–She commits her cause to Caesar.–Caesar’s pretensions.–He sends for Ptolemy.–Ptolemy’s indignation.–His complaints against Caesar.–Great tumult in the city.–Excitement of the populace.–Caesar’s forces–Ptolemy made prisoner.–Caesar’s address to the people.–Its effects.–The mob dispersed.–Caesar convenes an assembly.–Caesar’s decision. –Satisfaction of the assembly.–Festivals and rejoicings. –Pothinus and Achillas.–Plot of Pothinus and Achillas.–Escape of Achillas.–March of the Egyptian army.–Measures of Caesar. –Murder of the messengers.–Intentions of Achillas–Cold-blooded assassination.–Advance of Achillas–Caesar’s arrangements for defense.–Cleopatra and Ptolemy.–Double dealing of Pothinus.–He is detected.–Pothinus beheaded–Arsinoë and Ganymede–Flight of Arsinoë–She is proclaimed queen by the army.–Perplexity of the young Ptolemy.
The Alexandrine war.–Forces of Caesar.–The Egyptian army.–Fugitive slaves.–Dangerous situation of Caesar.–Presence of Caesar.–Influence of Cleopatra.–First measures of Caesar.–Caesar’s stores.–Military engines.–The mole.–View of Alexandria.–Necessity of taking possession of the mole.–Egyptian fleet.–Caesar burns the shipping.–The fort taken.–Burning of Alexandria.–Achillas beheaded.–Plans of Ganymede.–His vigorous measures.–Messengers of Ganymede.–Their instructions.–Ganymede cuts off Caesar’s supply of water.–Panic of the soldiers.–Caesar’s wells.–Arrival of the transports.–The transports in distress.–Lowness of the coast.–A combat.–Caesar successful. –Ganymede equips a fleet.–A naval conflict.–Caesar in danger. –Another victory.–The Egyptians discouraged.–Secret messengers. –Dissimulation of Ptolemy–Arrival of Mithradates.–Defeat of Ptolemy. –Terror and confusion.–Death of Ptolemy.–Cleopatra queen.–General disapprobation of Caesar’s course.–Cleopatra’s son Caesarion.–Public opinion of her conduct.–Caesar departs for Rome.–He takes Arsinoë with him.
The Alexandrine war very short.–Its extent.–Revenues of Egypt.–The city repaired.–The library rebuilt.–A new collection of manuscripts.– Luxury and splendor.–Deterioration of Cleopatra’s character.–The young Ptolemy.–Cleopatra assassinates him.–Career of Caesar.–His rapid course of conquest.–Cleopatra determines to go to Rome.–Feelings of the Romans.–Caesar’s four triumphs.–Nature of triumphal processions.–Arsinoë.–Sympathy of the Roman people.–Caesar overacts his part.–Feasts and festivals.–Riot and debauchery.–Public combats.–The artificial lake.–Combat upon it.–Land combats.–The people shocked.–Cleopatra’s visit.–Caesar’s plans for making himself king.–Conspiracy against Caesar.–He is assassinated.–Arsinoë released.–Calpurnia mourns her husband’s death.–Calpurnia looks to Mark Antony as her protector.
Consternation at Rome.–Caesar’s will.–Brutus and Cassius.–Parties formed.–Octavius and Lepidus.–Character of Octavius.–Octavius proceeds to Rome.–He claims his rights as heir.–Lepidus takes command of the army.–The triumvirate.–Conference between Octavius, Lepidus, and Antony.–Embassage to Cleopatra.–Her decision.–Cassius abandons his designs.–Approach of the triumvirs.–The armies meet at Philippi. –Sickness of Octavius.–Difference of opinion between Brutus and Cassius.–Council of war.–Decision of the council.–Brutus greatly elated.–Despondency of Cassius.–Preparations for battle.–Resolution of Brutus to die.–Similar resolve of Cassius.–Omens.–Their influence upon Cassius.–The swarms of bees.–Warnings received by Brutus.–The spirit seen by Brutus.–His conversation with it.–Battle of Philippi.–Defeat of Octavius.–Defeat of Cassius.–Brutus goes to his aid–Death of Cassius.–Grief of Brutus.–Defeat of Brutus.–His retreat.–Situation of Brutus in the glen.–The helmet of water.–Brutus surrounded.–Proposal of Statilius.–Anxiety and suspense.–Resolution of Brutus.–Brutus’s farewell to his friends.–The last duty.–Death of Brutus.–Situation of Antony.